Umbra Magazine No. 2 December, 1963. Ex-libris with usual stamps and markings. The roots of the Black arts literary movement came from the Umbra collective of young writers involved in the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School founded by LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka). Workshop members included Steve Cannon, Tom Dent, Al Haynes, David Henderson, Ishmael Reed, and Askia M. Toure (Roland Snelling). The group’s literary magazine, Umbra, featured poetry and other genres of creative writing, and became one of the earliest and most prominent “little magazines” that focused on African American authors and literature. The Umbra collective produced Umbra Magazine; two issues, edited by Calvin Hernton, David Henderson and Tom Dent, were produced during the group’s life-time, including a ‘Richard Wright Mnemonicon’ in the second issue. After the group split and the workshops themselves ended following the assassinations of Malcolm X and John F. Kennedy, David Henderson took over as editor. Scarce.